Metabolic risk factors, such as obesity, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia are independent risk factors for the development of various complications in acute pancreatitis (AP). Hypertriglyceridemia dose-dependently elicits pancreatotoxicity and worsens the outcomes of AP. The role of hyperglycemia, as a toxic metabolic factor in the clinical course of AP, has not been examined yet.
We analyzed a prospective, international cohort of 2250 AP patients, examining associations between (1) glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), (2) on-admission glucose, (3) peak in-hospital glucose and clinically important outcomes (mortality, severity, complications, length of hospitalization (LOH), maximal C-reactive protein (CRP)). We conducted a binary logistic regression accounting for age, gender, etiology, diabetes, and our examined variables. Receiver Operating Characteristic Curve (ROC) was applied to detect the diagnostic accuracy of the three variables.
Both on-admission and peak serum glucose are independently associated with AP severity and mortality, accounting for age, gender, known diabetes and AP etiology. They show a dose-dependent association with severity (p < 0.001 in both), mortality (p < 0.001), LOH (p < 0.001), maximal CRP (p < 0.001), systemic (p < 0.001) and local complications (p < 0.001). Patients with peak glucose >7 mmol/l had a 15 times higher odds for severe AP and a five times higher odds for mortality. We found a trend of increasing HbA1c with increasing LOH (p < 0.001), severity and local complications.
On-admission and peak in-hospital glucose are independently and dose-dependently associated with increasing AP severity and mortality. In-hospital laboratory control of glucose and adequate treatment of hyperglycemia are crucial in the management of AP.