Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology, 2023 (SCI-Expanded)
Cis-diamminedichloroplatinum (II) (cisplatin, Cis) is widely employed to treat several types of cancer. It has many important toxic side effects; one of the most important of which is nephrotoxicity. Clemizole hydrochloride (Clem) as the most potent inhibitor of TRPC5 channels was tested in an animal model of Cis-induced nephrotoxicity. Rats were divided into the following groups: control; Cis (8 mg/kg); Cis + 1 mg/kg Clem; Cis + 5 mg/kg Clem; Cis + 10 mg/kg Clem. Kidney injury was detected by histopathological and biochemical analysis. Urine urea nitrogen (UUN), creatinine, urine neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), serum catalase (CAT), and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Total antioxidant status (TAS) and total oxidant status (TOS) were studied using a colorimetric assay. Nephrin, synaptopodin, and Rac family small GTPase 1 (RAC1) expressions were detected by Western blot analysis. Cis was found to induce histopathological alterations, including tubular degeneration, congestion, hemorrhage, hyaline casts, glomerular collapse, and apoptotic cell death. Clem at a dose of 1 and 5 mg/kg attenuated histopathological alterations. UUN, creatinine, and NGAL levels increased in the Cis-administered group, while all doses of Clem decreased in those. CAT and TAS levels decreased, while TOS and oxidative stress index levels increased in the Cis-treated group. A dose of 1 and 5 mg Clem showed antioxidant effects against oxidative stress. Cis induced lipid peroxidation by increasing MDA levels. All doses of Clem reduced MDA levels. Nephrin and synaptopodin expressions were decreased by Cis, and all doses of Clem increased that. All doses of Clem successfully depressed RAC1 expression. Clem showed a highly ameliorating effect on toxicity caused by Cis by blocking TRPC5 calcium channels.