Food allergy, which is defined as an inverse immune response to food proteins, appears to increase gradually in children as a result of studies. It affects 6% of children and 3-4% of adults. The role of breast milk in preventing the development of allergies in children is controversial. Allergic reactions caused by food in children cause many symptoms and disorders affecting the gastrointestinal tract, respiratory tract and skin. These symptoms occur by immunoglobulin (Ig)E-mediated or non-IgE-mediated mechanisms. The cornerstone of food allergy treatment is removing foods from the diet by strict elimination method. Along with the genetic tendency, environmental factors can eliminate oral tolerance and cause food allergy. Disease results are affected by the immune system and trigger allergen properties. Foods that cause food allergies are a few, mainly milk, eggs, peanuts, nuts, fish and shellfish. In this review, the level of knowledge about the pathogenesis of the immunological response about most allergens, which are special substances in the protein structure found in foods, has been discussed with studies conducted. Thus, this study will shed light on identifying new immunotherapeutic approaches to allergens.