Background: Our aim was to assess the value of brain apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) in Intra Cytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI) and spontaneously conceived preterm singletons. Methods: Twenty ICSI-conceived preterm singletons and 20 gestational age matched spontaneously conceived preterm singletons were studied. All subjects underwent diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI). The main outcome measure was the brain ADC value in the in ICSI-conceived and naturally conceived newborns. Results: Children born after ICSI had an increased ADC value than the controls. The ADC values of ICSI-conceived singletons were higher than those of spontaneously conceived singletons at cerebellum, corpus striatum, frontal lobe, occipital lobe, and temporal lobe white matter. The mean Apgar score, birth weight, height, and head circumference of ICSI children were found to be similar to naturally conceived children. Conclusions: Measuring ADC value may be a promising marker in identifying neurological outcome of ICSI-conceived newborns.