Objective: To evaluate microleakage under the orthodontic adhesives applied following two version of erbium:yttrium aluminum garnet (Er:YAG) laser-aided enamel conditioning after thermal and thermomechanical simulators. Materials and Methods: A comparative analytical study based on metal braces bonded on the enamel of extracted teeth (n = 160) etched with acid, Er:YAG laser and Er:YAG laser with an X-Runner handpiece, and self-etch adhesives. An arch wire was ligatured to samples which were embedded in acrylic blocks by two with periodontal ligaments. The specimens were subdivided into two groups: those aged with thermal cycling and thermomechanical aging procedures. The samples were immersed in basic fuchsin solution (0.5%) for 24 h. Buccolingual sections were performed on the mesial and distal wings of the braces. The color penetration at the gingival and occlusal margins of the adhesive-bracket and enamel-adhesive was evaluated under a stereomicroscope. The median and mean values of microleakage in both groups were evaluated with Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests (P < .05). Results: The highest microleakage was recorded in the gingival part of the samples aged with the thermomechanical aging procedure (P = .001). The amount of microleakage generally increased in the samples subjected to thermomechanical loading, but the only significant difference was recorded in the gingival part in each four different conditioning methods. Conclusion: Microleakage of the phosphoric acid-etched groups was recorded with lower values for both aging methods. Thermomechanical aging should be included to microleakage studies due to increased microleakage on gingival side for all etching groups.