In Turkish adults, the incidence of coronary artery disease (CAD) has been found to be high. However, no detailed lipid, or lipoprotein data of children are available from Turkey. The present study was designed to define the borderline lipid and lipoprotein levels of sera in 397 healthy children (aged 5-14 years; 206 boys and 191 girls). Mean levels of total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), high-and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C and LDL-C, respectively) were found to be 150, 79, 46.7, and 87.6 mg/dL, respectively, for boys, and 152, 77.5, 46.3 and 90.5 mg/dL, respectively, for girls. Lipids and Lipoproteins did not show any significant correlation with age and body mass index (BMI), except for TG in boys in whom TG levels were positively correlated with age and BMI. There were no significant differences in lipid and lipoprotein levels between boys and girls. As in the Turkish adult population, serum HDL-C levels of Turkish children were profoundly low on international comparison. Twenty-three (53%) of 43 children with low HDL-C level (less than or equal to 35 mg/dL) had abnormal ratios of TC/HDL-C (greater than or equal to 5) and/or LDL-C/HDL-C (greater than or equal to 4.5). whereas only 13 (3.7%) of the remaining 354 children with a HDL-C level less than 35 mg/dL had abnormal ratios of TC/HDL-C (greater than or equal to 5) and/or LDL-C/HDL-C (greater than or equal to 4.5). The low levels of HDL-C in Turkish children may be associated with the high incidence of CAD in the Turkish adult population.