Anthrax, caused by the spore-forming bacterium Bacillus anthracis, is rarely seen in industrial nations but is common in developing countries. Cutaneous anthrax (CA), the most common form of the disease, accounts for 95% of cases and usually develops on exposed sites. This study reviews the clinical and laboratory findings of 21 patients diagnosed with CA during 2 separate epidemics in the Van region of Turkey. All patients had a history of direct contact with infected cattle. The patients, aged 1.5 to 64 years, included 13 females and 8 mates. Of the patients, 9 were 15 years or younger. Skin lesions were localized on the hands and fingers in 15 patients, on the face in 3 patients, on the face and finger in 1 patient, on the chest and-finger in 1 patient, and on the eyelid in 1 patient. Gram-positive bacillus were noted on Gram-stains of material obtained from skin lesions in 2 patients. All but one patient was successfully treated with penicillin; the unresponsive patient was treated with cefuroxime and required plastic reconstructive surgery because of a skin defect on the eyelid.