Thioxanthone-Fluorenes as Visible Light Photoinitiators for Free Radical Polymerization

Yilmaz G., Aydogan B., Temel G., ARSU N., MOSZNER N., Yağcı Y.

MACROMOLECULES, vol.43, no.10, pp.4520-4526, 2010 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 43 Issue: 10
  • Publication Date: 2010
  • Doi Number: 10.1021/ma100371y
  • Journal Name: MACROMOLECULES
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus
  • Page Numbers: pp.4520-4526
  • Bezmialem Vakıf University Affiliated: No


Two thioxanthone derivatives with fluorene additional chromophoric groups, namely thioxanthone-fluorenecarboxylie acid (TX-FLCOOH) and thioxanthone fluorene sodium carboxylate (TX-FLCOONa), as visible light absorbing oil- and water-soluble photoinitiators, respectively, were synthesized and characterized. Their ability to initiate photopolymerization of methyl methacrylate (M MA), 2-(2-phosphonoethoxymethyl)acrylic acid ethyl ester (EAEPA), and a multifunctional monomer, trimethylolpropane triacrylate (TMPTA), were examined. The initiation efficiency of TX-FLCOOH was compared with the parent thioxantone (TX) both in the presence and in the absence of a co-initiator, and TX-FLCOOH was found to be more effective in :ill cases. Photopolymerization and laser flash photolysis studies revealed that depending on the concentration initiation by TX-FLCOOH occurs by intra and intermolecular H-abstraction of the triplet (3)(TX-FLCOOH)*. No polymerization was observed when TX-FLCOONa was used as photoinitiator in the absence of a co-initiator. However, TX-FLCOONa acts as an efficient initiator in the visible range in the presence of H donors in water.