Toxicology in Vitro, vol.90, 2023 (SCI-Expanded)
Salix babylonica L. is a species of the willow tree. Insulinoma is a tumor originating from pancreatic beta cells. This study aims to research the effect of different fractions of Salix babylonica L. leaf extract on INS-1 cells for treating pancreatic tumors. Cell death occurred at lower doses in the EtOAc fraction. The cells are functional in the BuOH fraction but not in EtOAc and H2O fractions. The EtOAc fraction has a higher percentage of necrosis and ROS. INS1, INS2, and AKT gene expressions in the H2O fraction, GLUT2, IR, HSP70 gene expressions, and WNT4 protein levels increased in the BuOH fraction. HSP90 gene expression, Beta-actin, GAPDH, insulin, HSP70, HSP90, HSF1, Beta-Catenin, and WNT7A protein levels were decreased, while IR immunolabelling intensity increased in both fractions. Ca+2, K+, Na+, and CA-19-9 in the cell, Ca+2 and K+ in secretion increased. The secondary metabolites in the EtOAc fraction cause more damage in INS-1 cells. Since the water fraction also causes the cells to die in high doses, cell function is damaged. The secondary metabolites in the BuOH fraction kill INS-1 cells with less damage. This makes the BuOH fraction of Salix babylonica L. more valuable.