Recent studies have shown that Paraoxonase (PON1) enzyme plays a possible role in insulin synthesis by stimulating insulin release from β-cells of the pancreas as well as its anti-atherosclerotic property. In our study, we revealed the relationship between phenotypes of the PON1 enzyme and insulin resistance (IR) and impaired fasting glucose (IFG).
A cohort of 71 IR, 63 IFG, and 68 healthy individuals was examined in this study. The phenotypic distribution was demonstrated by studying PON1 enzyme’s Paraoxonase (POase) and Arylesterase (AREase) activity with automated measurement kits.
By measuring the ratio of POase activity to AREase activity, 3 different phenotypes (QQ (Risky or Bad Phenotype), QR (Notre Phenotype), and RR (Good Phenotype)) were discovered. The results showed that IR and IFG individuals had riskier phenotypes compared to the control group. In addition, individuals with bad phenotypes were found to be 1.85 and 2.16 times more likely to get IR and IFG, respectively. Both groups were found to be four times more likely to be affected by the bad phenotype (odds ratio: 3.69 and 4.47 respectively).
In this present study, the relationship between PON1 enzyme phenotypes and IR was evaluated for the first time in this field. Decreased PON1 activity and poor phenotype may also increase the development of hyperglycemia or diabetes mellitus (DM) due to IR and IFG. It may also predispose to diseases such as atherosclerosis. Therefore, we think that further investigations to explain the possible mechanisms underlying the relationship between PON1 phenotypes, IR and IFG will be useful in the early diagnosis and prevention of prediabetes.