DIGESTIVE DISEASES, vol.39, no.4, pp.407-414, 2021 (SCI-Expanded)
Background: The risk of malignancy in resected gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) depends on tumor size, location, and mitotic index. Reportedly, the Ki67 index has a prognostic value in resected GISTs. We aimed to analyze the accuracy of endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided fine needle aspiration (FNA) samples with reference to Ki67 index, using surgical specimens as the gold standard. Methods: Fifty-five patients who underwent EUS-FNA followed by surgical resection for gastric GISTs were retrospectively analyzed. Patients' age and sex; tumors' size and location; mitotic index, cell type, cellularity, pleomorphism, presence of ulceration, hemorrhage, necrosis, mucosal or serosal invasion, growth pattern, and Ki67 index based on pathology were investigated. Results: Location in fundus, ulceration, hemorrhage, mucosal invasion, and Ki67 index in surgical specimens were significant in predicting high-risk groups (p < 0.05) on univariate analysis. Frequency of bleeding (p = 0.034) and the Ki67 index (p = 0.018) were the only independent significant factors in multivariate analysis. The optimal cutoff level of Ki67 was 5%, with 88.2% sensitivity and 52.8% specificity (p = 0.021). The mean Ki67 index was lower in EUS-FNA samples than in surgical specimens (2% [1-15] versus 10% [1-70], p = 0.001). The rank correlation coefficient value of Ki67 was 0.199 (p = 0.362) between EUS-FNA and surgical samples and showed no reliability for EUS-FNA samples. Conclusion: The Ki67 index in resected specimens correlated with high-risk GISTs, although it had no additive value to the current criteria. The Ki67 index in EUS-guided FNA samples is not a reliable marker of proliferation in GISTs.