The aim of the present study is to evaluate the severity of adhesions occurring after the use of different meshes for incisional hernia repair in rats. We assigned 37 female Wistar-Albino rats to four groups. A 2 x 2 cm abdominal wall defect was created in all rats. In Group 1 (Control), the peritoneum was closed with 4/0 polypropylene sutures. The abdominal wall defect was repaired with a condensed polytetrafluoroethylene mesh in Group 2, a polypropylene mesh coated with absorbable polydioxanone on the parietal side and oxidized regenerated cellulose on the visceral side in Group 3 and a PP mesh coated with carboxymethylcellulose and sodium hyaluronate on one side in Group 4. The abdominal wall with the adherent tissue was resected en bloc for macroscopic, histological and biochemical examinations. Fibrosis was significantly less severe in the control group than in the mesh groups, but did not significantly differ between the mesh groups. The average pressure required to break the resected mesh specimen was significantly lower in the control group than in the mesh groups, but did not significantly differ between the mesh groups. The mean hydroxyproline level was significantly lower in of Group 1 (Control) than in Groups 3 and 4 and in Group 2 than in Group 3. None of the meshes tested in this study was superior to the others in terms of severity of adhesions and incidence of complications. All three meshes, when placed in the peritoneum, resulted in more fibrosis than that in the control group.