Colon perforation related to percutaneous nephrolithotomy: from diagnosis to treatment

Akbulut F., Tok A., PENBEGÜL N., DAĞGÜLLİ M., Eryildirim B., ADANUR Ş., ...More

UROLITHIASIS, vol.43, no.6, pp.521-526, 2015 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 43 Issue: 6
  • Publication Date: 2015
  • Doi Number: 10.1007/s00240-015-0792-2
  • Journal Name: UROLITHIASIS
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus
  • Page Numbers: pp.521-526
  • Bezmialem Vakıf University Affiliated: Yes


We present our experience with the largest series of colon perforation (CP) as complication of percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL). From January 1998 to August 2014, 22 cases that presented with PNL-related CP from seven referral centers were retrospectively reviewed. The patients with CP were evaluated in terms of probable risk factors. Peri-operative and postoperative findings, timing of diagnosis, and treatment modalities of the CP were reviewed. Of the 22 patients, previous ipsilateral renal surgery (n:2) and retrorenal colon (n:5) were the risk factors for CP. The CP was directly visualized via nephroscopy during the surgery in 3 (13.6 %) and with nephrostography at the end of the procedure in 4 patients (18.2 %). In two patients, perforation was realized via the passage of contrast into the colon with nephrostography on the postoperative second day. Postoperative passage of feces through the nephrostomy tube was seen in six patients. The clinical signs in 13 cases directed CP diagnosis. The confirmation of the CP was achieved with a CT scan in all the patients. The patients with extraperitoneal perforation were primarily managed conservatively. Open surgical treatment was performed in cases with intraperitoneal perforation (n:5) and those with extraperitoneal perforation resistant to conservative treatment (n:5). Meticulous evaluation of the risk factors preoperatively is the initial step in the prevention of CP. Timely diagnosis plays essential role in the management of this PNL complication. Although extraperitoneal CP may be managed conservatively, surgery is required for intraperitoneal CPs.