Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. The aim of this study is to examine the negative effects of toluene on kidney tissues and functions and to investigate the protective effects of CAPE against toluene-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. A total of 21 male Wistar rats were divided into three groups of equal number in each. The rats in group I were the controls. Toluene was intraperitoneally injected into the rats in group II with a dose of 500 mg/kg. Rats in group III received CAPE daily while exposed to toluene. After 14 days of experimental period, all rats were killed by decapitation. Enzymatic activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and catalase (CAT) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were studied in the rat kidneys. Blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and serum creatinine levels were measured for renal function. The CAT and SOD enzyme activities and serum creatinine levels were significantly increased in rats treated with toluene when compared with the controls. But GSH-Px activity, MDA, and BUN levels showed statistically nonsignificant changes. However, increased CAT and SOD enzyme activities and decreased serum creatinine levels were detected in the rats that received CAPE while exposed to toluene. The GSH-Px activity and MDA and BUN levels in the same group did not show statistically significant changes. The results of our study demonstrated that toluene damages kidney tissue and is a nephrotoxic substance. CAPE was able to prevent the renal damage as antioxidant, antitoxic, and nephroprotective agent.