HEMODIALYSIS INTERNATIONAL, vol.18, no.3, pp.700-704, 2014 (SCI-Expanded)
The superficial cervical plexus block (SCPB) is utilized in pediatric patients to perform certain surgical procedures, but there is no evidence supporting its use in hemodialysis catheter placement. We evaluated the analgesic effectiveness, intraoperative complications, and patient satisfaction associated with SCPB for pediatric patients in renal failure undergoing emergent dialysis catheterization. A total of 52 patients ranging from 1 to 17 years old that required emergent dialysis catheter placement and received SCPB were included in this study. During the catheterization, intraoperative pain scores, requirement for additional analgesia, catheterization access site, and intraoperative complications were recorded. The Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario Pain Scale (mCHEOPS) was used to determine pain ratings during skin puncture with the needle, skin dilatation, and securing the catheter with stitches. The patients had an average age of 8.46 +/- 5.3 years. The preferred catheterization entry site was through right internal jugular vein, which was achieved in 80.7% of patients. However, 19.3% of patients required access through the right subclavian vein. The average mCHEOPS score during skin puncture was 1.4 +/- 0.5, and the mean mCHEOPS score was 2.3 +/- 0.6 for skin dilatation. Finally, the average mCHEOPS score while securing the catheter with stitches was 1.3 +/- 0.4. No patient required fentanyl for additional analgesia. No intraoperative complications occurred. The benefits gained from using SCPB performed by an experienced anesthesiologist for hemodialysis catheter placement include providing sufficient analgesia and optimal surgical conditions while avoiding the complications associated with general anesthesia for pediatric patients with renal failure.