An intensive care unit (ICU)-based OXA-23-producing multiple-drug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (MDRAB) outbreak was detected between October 2005 and October 2006. A total of 47 patients were infected/colonized with the outbreak strain. Clinical data were available from 37 patients. The all-cause mortality rate among the patients exposed to the epidemic strain was 35% (13/37). The outbreak strain and the resistance determinants were characterized both by microbiological methods and by molecular techniques. Cloning and sequencing experiments identified ISAbaI-associated bla(oxa-23) on the chromosome. Screening of imipenem-resistant Acinetobacter isolated from the ICU during the outbreak period with PCR identified 97 isolates as positive for the ISAbaI-bla(oxa-23) structure. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and plasmid analyses with selected nonrepetitive isolates revealed the clonality. Disk diffusion on cloxacillin-supplemented agar media and the real-time PCR experiments showed that outbreak isolates are overexpressing the ampC enzyme. This study highlights the occurrence of OXA-23-producing and ampC-overexpressing MDRAB in ICUs.