Empyemas develop following bacterial pneumonias, thoracic trauma and surgery which are still among the common diseases, causing illness and death throughout the developing world, With the advent of potent antibiotics the mortality of empyema has been drastically reduced. In this study 52 patients (29 boys and 23 girls) with thoracic empyema were evaluated retrospectively. In this series the causes of empyema were postpneumonic in 50 patients, esophageal anostomotic leak in one patient, and thoracic trauma in one patient, The diagnosis was suspected clinically and by the finding of a pleural effusion on chest roentgenogram. Definitive diagnosis was confirmed by pleural aspiration which pus was obtained, Responsible organisms included; Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumonia, Haemophilus influenza, pseudomonas, and Klebsiella, The most common is Staphylococcus aureus. The patients were treated in various ways; 14 patients were treated with antibiotics and thoracentesis, 38 patients were treated with a closed tube thoracostomy, Eight of 38 patients had the chest tube converted to an open empyema tubes for long term management, Fourteen of 38 patients developed abcess formation, Nine of 14 patients were treated with computed tomography guided catheter placement, five patients encountered thoracotomy and decortication, In this article, appropriate treatment and result of long-term follow-up of empyema were evaluated.