In this study, we aimed to determine the alterations of beta-cell ultrastructure, insulin mRNA and protein products of the same gene on the pancreas of rats following long-term treatment of 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide riboside (AICAR). A single dose of streptozotocin (STZ) 100 mg/kg was injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) to 2-day-old newborn (n2) rats. The rats were divided into three groups. The first group was the n2 STZ-diabetic rats. The second group consisted of n2 STZ-diabetic rats treated with AICAR 10 mg/kg/day for one month. The third group was non-diabetic control rats. Our findings demonstrate that AICAR treatment decreases the blood glucose level but increases the body weight in n2 STZ-diabetic rats. In the AICAR-treated group, numerous beta cells showed increased insulin gene expression. We also observed increased exocytosis in this group, in an ultrastructural manner. As a result, it is suggested that AICAR may induce insulin synthesis and betacell regeneration in n2 STZ-diabetic rats.