5,10-Methlenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is one of the most important enzymes for folate metabolism. This enzyme is mapped on chromosome 1, which is located at the end of the short arm (1p36.3). The C677T and A1298C are MTHFR polymorphisms that decrease in vitro MTHFR enzyme activity. Folate metabolism plays a key role in cell metabolism. These reactions are associated with purine-pyrimidine synthesis: DNA, RNA, and protein methylation. Polymorphism is also a factor in biodiversity, and be affected by ethnic heritage and geographic locale. In the case of unknown outcomes, not only should all geographical regions be investigated to ascertain biodiversity, but all populations as well to fully understand the variations in the effect. PUBMED was searched from January 2006 to December 2011 to develop an investigatory pursuit strategy. MTHFR, cancer, C677T, A1298C, and polymorphisms were key words used to focus the search. The literature review included all published relevant cancer types and MTHFR polymorphisms for that 5 years period. All selected polymorphisms data for cancer types was listed in tables for easy access and retrieval.