Essential oil and phenolic compositions of Sideritis brevibracteata P.H. Davis, which is an endemic species in Turkey and commonly used as a herbal tea for some diseases, were determined by GC-MS and Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) techniques. While the main components of the essential oil were determined as caryophyllene, germacrene-D, and -cadinene, the phenolic compounds quercetagetin-3,6-dimethylether and chlorogenic acid were found to be the main compounds in the extracts of the species. The characteristic diterpenoids of Sideritis species such as siderol, linearol, eubotriol, sideridiol, and athonolone were isolated and their structures were elucidated by 1D and 2D NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance) techniques. Weak inhibitory activity of species against butyryl-cholinesterase was determined. Antioxidant capacity of the acetone and methanol extracts was determined by DPPH free radical scavenging activity, -carotene linoleic acid assays, and CUPRAC assays.