Peripancreatic tuberculous lymphadenitis is a very rare and difficult diagnosis. We report herein a patient with a clinically solitary abdominal tuberculoma. A 68-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with moderate-level obstructive jaundice due to a mass located between pylorus and head of the pancreas. There were no clinical signs or symptoms of tuberculosis in lungs or abdomen. After the diagnosis of a neoplasm of the pancreas was made, exploratory laparotomy was performed which revealed a conglomerated mass penetrating into the pancreas. Since an exact diagnosis could not be reached on the basis of frozen sections prepared during the operation, a standard Whipple procedure was performed. After the histopathological examination of the resected specimen revealed tuberculous lympadenitis, the patient was given antituberculous medication. The patient recovered well. An abdominal tuberculoma is often mistaken for a malignant neoplasm, and nonsurgical diagnosis and treatment of this entity continues to be a challenge. Copyright (C) 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel and IAP.