We evaluated our experience of subtotal parathyroidectomy (SP) for secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHP) cases. We evaluated retrospectively our 150 SP operations due to SHP. Serious hypocalcemia (< 6.5 mg/dL) developed in 23 (15.3%) patients, and we performed cryopreserved parathyroid cell autotransplantation in four cases with successful results. Recurrent hyperparathyroidism developed in 3 (2%) cases, and persistent hyperparathyroidism was observed in 22 (14.6%) cases. Upon reoperation in nine persistent hyperparathyroidism cases, we found supernumerary parathyroid glands in three cases, remnant tissue hyperplasia in four cases, and ectopic parathyroid glands in two cases. Among cases in which four glands cannot be found during surgery, the permanent HP rate is high. Serious hypocalcemia may develop postoperatively, and cryopreserved parathyroid autotransplantation may be inevitable in some of these cases.