Background Death is the most serious complication of intracerebral hemorrhage. Microbleeding can be a precursor of intracerebral hemorrhage. Susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI) should be included in imaging protocols for some specific groups such diabetic hemodialysis patients in terms of prediction of macrohemorrhages. Purpose To investigate intracerebral microbleeding in hemodialysis patients and the correlation between microbleeding and neurocognitive impairment. Material and Methods Forty-nine hemodialysis cases were involved in the study. Locations of microbleeding, correlation between microbleeding and hypertension, diabetes mellitus (DM), age, and duration of dialysis were analyzed. Standardized mini-mental test was performed. The tested cases were divided into two groups: intracerebral microbleeding (group 1, n = 26) and without intracerebral microbleeding (group 2, n = 17). Results Incidence of microbleeding and macrohemorrhage was noted as 59% and 14%, respectively, in all cases. All macrohemorrhagic cases also have microbleeding. In group 1, neurocognitive impairment was detected in 10 (38.4%) cases: six and four cases with moderate and mild impairment, respectively. In group 2, neurocognitive impairment was detected in 2 (11.7%) cases, both with mild impairment. A significant positive correlation was detected between microbleeding and neurocognitive impairment (P = 0.031). Although there was no correlation between attention disorder and microbleeding, a positive correlation was detected between close memory impairment and microbleeding (P = 0.027). A positive correlation was detected between DM and microbleeding (P = 0.027). Conclusion In hemodialysis patients, microbleeding can be a cause of neurocognitive impairment which will be important for guide to treatment protocols. SWI should be included in the imaging protocol of diabetic hemodialysis patients with neurocognitive deterioration.