The aim of the present study was to investigate whether altered serum total sialic acid (TSA), lipid-associated sialic acid (LSA), copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), zinc (Zn), chromium (Cr), iron (Fe), and magnesium (Mg) levels had an interactive connection with diabetes and also whether they were correlated with each other in diabetic patients. Two study groups (control and type 2 diabetic subjects) were included. Two hundred patients (108 female and 92 male), diagnosed and treated for type 2 diabetes in the Yuzuncu Yil University Hospital (Van, Turkey), were selected consecutively to represent type 2 diabetic patients. Fifty healthy individuals (29 female and 21 male) served as the control group matched for age, sex, body mass index, and smoking status were selected from hospital staff and other outpatient clinics. All participants had not taken vitamin or mineral supplements for at least 2 wk before sampling. Blood samples were drawn after an overnight fasting in both groups for the determination of serum glucose, TSA, LSA, Cu, Zn, Mn, Cr, Fe, and Mg. It was found that diabetics had higher TSA, LSA, Fe, Mn, Fe/Zn, and Cu/Zn levels, and lower Zn and Mg levels than those of controls. Although, Cu levels were higher, and Cr levels were lower in total and male diabetic patients, they were not different in female diabetic patients than in controls. The Cu/Fe ratio was lower in total and female diabetic patients, but not different in male diabetic patients than controls. The Zn/Cr ratio, on the other hand, was not different in diabetics than in controls. There was only a positive correlation between Fe-Mn levels in male diabetic patients. There was a negative correlation in LSA-Mn, Fe-Cu, Cu-Fe/Zn, and Mn-Cu/Zn levels in total diabetic patients. There was a positive correlation in TSA-Cr, TSA-Mg, LSA-Cu/Fe, LSA-Zn/Cr levels, and a negative correlation in TSA-Cu/Zn, LSA-Mn, Fe-Cu, Mn-Cu, Cu-Fe/Zn, Fe-cholesterol, and Cr-cholesterol in female diabetic patients. Our results showed that TSA, LSA, and selected minerals have interactive connections with diabetes mellitus (DM). There are also many sex-related positive or negative correlations between the altered parameters in diabetic patients. These parameters might be used as diagnostic index in patients with DM.