The Vitamin D Serum Levels in Pregnant Women Affected by COVID-19: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Szarpak L., Feduniw S., Pruc M., Ciebiera M., CANDER B., Rahnama-Hezavah M., ...More

Nutrients, vol.15, no.11, 2023 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Review
  • Volume: 15 Issue: 11
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.3390/nu15112588
  • Journal Name: Nutrients
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Agricultural & Environmental Science Database, BIOSIS, CAB Abstracts, CINAHL, EMBASE, Food Science & Technology Abstracts, MEDLINE, Veterinary Science Database, Directory of Open Access Journals
  • Keywords: COVID-19, pregnancy, SARS-CoV-2, vitamin D
  • Bezmialem Vakıf University Affiliated: Yes


Vitamin D can modulate immune responses, and its deficiency is linked to increased autoimmunity and susceptibility to infection. In the general population, it has been observed that serum vitamin D levels are connected with the risk of COVID-19 and its severity. Our study aims to examine reported findings on the effect of vitamin D serum levels on infection of COVID-19 during pregnancy. PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, and Cochrane Library were searched for relevant studies. Serum vitamin D serum levels in COVID-19-positive and COVID-19-negative pregnant women were 24.61 ± 20.86 ng/mL and 24.12 ± 17.33 ng/mL, respectively. In mild vs. moderate to critical COVID-19 pregnant women, vitamin D serum levels were 16.71 ± 9.04 ng/mL vs. 10.7 ± 9.37 ng/mL and severe vs. non-severe were 13.21 ± 11.47 ng/mL vs. 15.76 ± 10.0 ng/mL. Only one study reported vitamin D serum levels in the placenta of COVID-19-positive pregnant women compared with the control and results varied and amounted to 14.06 ± 0.51 ng/mL vs. 12.45 ± 0.58 ng/mL, respectively. Vitamin D deficiency tends to be common in pregnant women who have COVID-19, and the level of this vitamin has been demonstrated to have a strong correlation with the severity of the illness. As vitamin D serum levels correlate with COVID-19 symptoms and even with its occurrence, appropriate vitamin D supplementation in the prenatal period is suggested.