Objective. Fiber-reinforced composite dowels are suggested to be a better alternative to metal dowels. This in vitro study evaluated the fracture resistance and fracture modes of teeth restored with nine different dowel systems. Materials and methods. Ninety mandibular pre-molar teeth were decoronated and nine homogenous groups were composed. Root canal and dowel canal preparations were made and nine different dowel systems were used to fabricate restorations. Core build-ups were made with a composite resin core material. Specimens were mounted in acrylic resin blocks and continuous compressive force was applied until fracture occurred. Fracture resistance and fracture mode data were collected. One-sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov and one-way ANOVA tests were performed for the fracture resistance data of the groups. Results. There were no significant differences among the fracture resistances of the groups. All specimens of the pre-fabricated stainless steel dowel group fractured catastrophically. However, even in the worst-case, five specimens of the fiber-reinforced composite groups had favorable fracture modes. Conclusions. The teeth restored with fiber reinforced composite dowels were as resistant to fracture as teeth restored with stainless steel dowels. Fracture modes of teeth restored with fiber reinforced composite dowels were more advantageous than teeth restored with pre-fabricated stainless steel dowels.