The etiology of otitis media with effusion (OME) is unclear. The bacterial analyses of middle ear effusion (MEE) in OME may reveal important information regarding its etiology. Alloiococcus otitidis, Heamophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Moraxella catarrhalis were investigated by using microbiologic culture and a multiplex PCR method in the middle ear fluid of 32 children (54 samples) with chronic OME. PCR yielded positive results in 18 (33.3%) middle ear effusions while culture resulted positive for 3 (5.6%). The PCR method detected A. otitidis in 10 (18.5%) specimens, H. influenzae in 7 (13%), M. catarrhalis in 4 (7.4%) and S. pneumoniae in 2 (3.7%) specimens. The multiplex PCR method enhances the detection rate significantly compared to that of the conventional culture method. A. otitidis is the most common detected pathogen in the MEE of the OME.