Human CRY1 variants associate with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder

Emre Onat O., Ece Kars M., Gül Ş., Bilguvar K., Wu Y., Özhan A., ...More

Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol.130, no.7, pp.3885-3900, 2020 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 130 Issue: 7
  • Publication Date: 2020
  • Doi Number: 10.1172/jci135500
  • Journal Name: Journal of Clinical Investigation
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, BIOSIS, CAB Abstracts, Chemical Abstracts Core, CINAHL, EMBASE, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts, MEDLINE, Veterinary Science Database
  • Page Numbers: pp.3885-3900
  • Bezmialem Vakıf University Affiliated: No


Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common and heritable phenotype frequently accompanied by insomnia, anxiety, and depression. Here, using a reverse phenotyping approach, we report heterozygous coding variations in the core circadian clock gene cryptochrome 1 in 15 unrelated multigenerational families with combined ADHD and insomnia. The variants led to functional alterations in the circadian molecular rhythms, providing a mechanistic link to the behavioral symptoms. One variant, CRY1Δ11 c.1657+3A>C, is present in approximately 1% of Europeans, therefore standing out as a diagnostic and therapeutic marker. We showed by exome sequencing in an independent cohort of patients with combined ADHD and insomnia that 8 of 62 patients and 0 of 369 controls carried CRY1Δ11. Also, we identified a variant, CRY1Δ6 c.825+1G>A, that shows reduced affinity for BMAL1/CLOCK and causes an arrhythmic phenotype. Genotype-phenotype correlation analysis revealed that this variant segregated with ADHD and delayed sleep phase disorder (DSPD) in the affected family. Finally, we found in a phenome-wide association study involving 9438 unrelated adult Europeans that CRY1Δ11 was associated with major depressive disorder, insomnia, and anxiety. These results defined a distinctive group of circadian psychiatric phenotypes that we propose to designate as “circiatric” disorders.