OBJECTIVES: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a severe neurodegenerative disease with presentation of the neuronal death, memory loss and cognitive decline. The relationship between neuroinflammation and AD has been well documented. However, the options of anti-inflammatory treatment are very limited in patients with AD. Previous studies showed that flavonoids might be an effective treatment and thymoquinone (TQ), an aromatic hydrocarbon found in Nigella sativa suggested as a candidate molecule due to having strong anti-inflammatory effects. Our study aimed to investigate the effects of TQ on neuroinflammation and neuroprotection in A beta((1-42)) infused rat model of AD.