The prevalence of restless legs syndrome (RLS) is increased in gluten sensitive enteropathy (GSE); hut prevalence of GSE is not known in RLS. 96 RLS patients and 97 healthy controls, both with or without iron deficiency were enrolled. All secondary RLS patients except iron deficiency were excluded. Subjects underwent a thorough biochemistry and routine blood analyses, and tissue transglutaminase antibodies (TTGA), endomysium antibodies (EMA) and gliadin antibodies (AGA) were also tested. In RLS patients positivity rates of all GSE antibodies were similar to those in controls. The rate of iron deficiency anaemia in RLS patients with at least one positive GSE antibody was significantly higher than that of RLS patients whose GSE antibodies were all negative. The prevalence of GSE antibodies in RLS patients is not increased. GSE might have a role in the aetiology of RLS in association with iron deficiency anaemia. Since the prevalence of GSE antibodies is not increased in RLS, it seems unlikely that GSE is involved in the aetiology of RLS through different mechanisms (e.g. immunological mechanisms) other than iron deficiency as proposed in some published papers.