Purpose: Topotecan has recently been used in the treatment of pediatric cancer. We evaluated our experience with the modified combination of vincristine, topotecan, and cyclophosphamide (VTC) given in 3 days, in children with recurrent Ewing sarcoma. Method: Children received vincristine (1.5 mg/m(2)/1st day), cyclophosphamide (600 mg/m(2)/day x 2 days) + mesna, and topotecan (1 mg/m(2)/day x 3 days) every 21 days. Result: A total of 118 courses of VTC were given to 13 patients. One patient received VTC both at first and at second relapse. Thus, 14 relapse episodes in 13 patients were evaluated. After three courses of VTC chemotherapy (CT), two achieved complete response (CR), five achieved partial response, thus an objective response was attained in 7/14 (50%) episodes. Two patients had stable disease and two patients progressed. In three episodes, CR was achieved by surgery before CT. One of them had a second relapse and attained CR with VTC. Median time from diagnosis to relapse was 23 months (5-45 months). Site of relapse was local in four patients, and metastatic in 10 episodes of nine patients. Seven patients are alive, three with no evidence of disease and four alive with disease; six have died of disease. Local treatment was used in 11 episodes. The toxicity of the VTC combination was limited mainly to the hematopoietic system. Conclusion: In conclusion, the modified VTC protocol in 3 days every 3 weeks seems to be effective and tolerable in children and adolescents with recurrent/progressive Ewing sarcoma.