Cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury is caused by lack of blood supply to the brain. The accumulation of toxic products such as reactive oxygen species (ROS) occurs on reperfusion, when the occlusion is removed. The resulting oxidative stress results in the initiation of pathways leading to necrotic and apoptotic cell death. Tadalafil (TAD) prevents the accumulation of ROS and increases antioxidant cellular protective mechanisms. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of TAD treatment against short-term global brain I/R injury in rats. The study was carried out on 30 Wistar-albino rats, which were divided into three groups including a control group (n = 10), an I/R group (n = 10) and an I/R + TAD group (n = 10) (2 mg/kg/day for 4 days before ischemia). At the end of the experiment, tissue samples were collected for both biochemical and histopathological analyses. Malondialdehyde was significantly lower in the TAD-administered group (9.06 +/- A 0.15) than in the I/R group (p < 0.05). However, no significant difference was observed in nitric oxide levels in the TAD-administered group compared to the I/R group. The mean superoxide dismutase level was significantly higher in the I/R-TAD group than the I/R group. There was no statistically significant difference in glutathione peroxidase levels in I/R + TAD group compared to I/R group. Histopathologically, TAD-administered group provided significant morphological improvement compared to the I/R group. We concluded that TAD prevented I/R-induced neurotoxicity as shown by obtained biochemical and histopathological findings.