Testicular torsion is a serious problem in male children and, if not treated at the right time, can lead to subfertility and infertility. The main reason for testicular damage is ischemia-reperfusion injury. A number of chemical substances have been used to protect testes against ischemia-reperfusion injury in experimental animals. The possible protective effect of N-acetylcysteine on testicular tissue after testicular detorsion was examined in the current study. Twenty-four rats were divided into four groups: sham operation, torsion, detorsion, and NAC + detorsion groups (n = 6 for each group). Excluding sham operation group, the rats were subjected to unilateral torsion (720-degree rotation in clockwise direction). After torsion (5 h) and detorsion (2 h), unilateral orchidectomy was performed. Malondialdehyde levels and superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase activities were determined in testicular tissue. Administration of N-acetylcysteine caused a decrease in malondialdehyde levels and an increase in glutathione peroxidase levels compared to detorsion group. The results suggest that N-acetylcysteine may be a potential protective agent for preventing the negative biochemical changes related to oxidative stress in testicular injury caused by testis torsion. (C) 2006 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.