Inadvertent Perioperative Hypothermia in Ambulatory Surgery Patients: Incidence, Risk Factors, and Prevention Initiatives

GÜVEN B., İbrahimoğlu Ö., Kuş İ.

Journal of Perianesthesia Nursing, 2023 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.jopan.2023.02.002
  • Journal Name: Journal of Perianesthesia Nursing
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI), Scopus, CINAHL, EMBASE, MEDLINE, DIALNET
  • Keywords: ambulatory surgery, incidence, perioperative hypothermia, risk factors
  • Bezmialem Vakıf University Affiliated: Yes


Purpose: Although the number and complexity of ambulatory surgical interventions has grown considerably over the years, it has not been fully established whether hypothermia still poses a risk for these interventions. In this study, we aimed to determine the incidence, risk factors, and methods applied to prevent perioperative hypothermia in ambulatory surgery patients. Design: A descriptive research design was used. Methods: The study was conducted with 175 patients between May 2021 and March 2022 in the outpatient units of a training and research hospital in Mersin, Turkey. Data were collected using the Patient Information and Follow-up Form. Findings: The incidence of perioperative hypothermia was 20% in ambulatory surgery patients. Hypothermia developed in 13.7% of the patients at the 0th minute at the PACU, and 96.6% of the patients were not warmed intraoperatively. We noted a statistically significant relationship between perioperative hypothermia and advanced age (≥60 years), high American Society of Anesthesiologists' (ASA) class, and low hematocrit values. In addition, we determined that the female gender, presence of chronic diseases, general anesthesia, and a long operation time were other risk factors for hypothermia in the perioperative period. Conclusions: The incidence of hypothermia during ambulatory surgeries is lower than that in inpatient surgeries. The warming rate of ambulatory surgery patients, which is quite low, can be improved by increasing the awareness of the perioperative team and following the guidelines.