in: Human Leukocyte Antigens - Updates and Advances, Sevim GÖNEN, Editor, IntechOpen, London, pp.10-31, 2023
Understanding the dynamic of the immune system, it is becoming clear that the characteristics of the tissue can be important as immune cells to determine the initiation and progression of an immune response. Among the various responses, tissue-specific immunity can be characterized by determining the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC). Human major histocompatibility antigens are known as the “human leukocyte antigen” (HLA) system. HLA contains more than 200 genes and has essential activities in immunology, diseases, and transplantation with gene regions of diverse functions. One of the significant roles in transplantation is donor and recipient selection. In allorecognition, once the recipient antigen-presenting cells (APC) recognize the donor tissue, this leads to activation and migration of the immune cells, which can promote rejection or tolerance. In solid organ transplantation, cultured tissue cells were presumed as passenger-leukocytes free, ensuring mainly prolonged graft survival. However, the current literature paves the way for understanding HLA peptides and allorecognition dynamics to prevent rejection or provide a definition for the donor-recipient match. Based on the given information, this chapter summarizes the HLA expression dynamics and allorecognition status from a transplantation perspective for endocrine glands, including the Adrenal glands, Pancreas, Parathyroid, and Thyroid glands.