The charts of 338 patients underwent 455 thoracoplasties were reviewed to evaluate the role of thoracoplasty in empyema. indications for thoracoplasty were to close a persistent pleural space in 426 operations and to tailor the thoracic cavity in 29. Bronchopleural fistula was present in 223 patients (223/338, 66%). Procedures were combined with intrathoracic muscle transposition in 426 operations. Operations performed were thoracomyoplasty (n: 380), myoplasty (n: 46), decortication and thoracoplasty (n: 21), pneumonectomy and thoracoplasty (n:8). Revision of thoracoplasty was needed in 93 patients and 12 of them underwent a third operation. Operative mortality was 14,4% in patients with tuberculosis and 11,8% in nonspesific group. Thoracoplasty is still necessary in the treatment of empyema and recommended to combine with myoplasty (thoracomyoplasty) in every case.