Objective: We aimed to investigate the prevalence and mode of risperidone use in preschool aged children admitted with a chief complaint of aggressive and destructive behavioral symptoms. Methods: In this retrospective chart review study, medical records of the patients were reviewed for age, gender, primary and comorbid diagnoses, dosage and duration of risperidone treatment. Dosage and duration of risperidone treatment were compared among primary diagnoses. Results: In 2790 children prevalence of risperidone use was 18.5% (n=516). Mean age was 4.86 +/- 1.12 years. Of these patients, %74.4 had primary diagnosis of a disruptive behavior disorder (DBD). Mean starting dosage of risperidone was 0.35 mg/day and mean maintenance dosage was 0.52 mg/day. The mean length of treatment was 4.9 months. Starting and maintenance doses were significantly higher and treatment duration was longer in patients with mental retardation (MR) than in those with DBDs. Conclusion: In preschoolers, risperidone is frequently used to control aggressive and destructive behavioral symptoms which may improve with higher doses and longer treatment in those with MR. The development of evidence-based treatment modalities for children with aggressive and destructive behaviors necessitates controlled studies and confirmation of their pertinence to clinical practice.