Purpose The aim of this study is to evaluate the branching patterns and topographical features of the third part of the maxillary artery (t-MA) and descending palatine artery (DPA) by 3-Dimensional Rotational Angiography (3DRA) images and to define the radiological classification of their variations, based upon the previous cadaveric studies and a review of the literature. Method This study was conducted from May 2020 through June 2021. All consecutive adult patients who were examined with 3D-RA were enrolled in the study. The morphological evaluations and measurements of t-MA, DPA and their branches were made on maximum intensity projection images with 10-20 mm slice thickness. Results Eighty-five hemifaces, including 58 females and 45 right sides, were evaluated. The diameter of the t-MA was measured as 1.73 +/- 0.30 mm. The most common pattern of the t-MA according to its course was loop type (63/85, 74.1%) and according to branching pattern was Type Ib (29/85, 34.1%). The mean diameter of DPA was 1.19 +/- 0.20 mm. The DPA presented as a single trunk in 11/85 cases. Type II, which was defined as one lesser palatine artery originating from distal-DPA, was the most common morphological variation (51.8%). Conclusions 3DRA imaging provides valuable information for vascular anatomical studies. The most common morphological variation related to t-MA, DPA is the distal branching pattern.