Objectives. Vitamin D regulates calcium and bone homeostasis, and parathyroid hormone (PTH) secretion. Cross-sectional associations between lower vitamin D levels and cardiovascular diseases have been reported, but the relationship between vitamin D levels and collateral arteries in stable coronary artery disease (CAD) has not been reported before. Design. Two hundred and fourteen patients with above 95% stenosis in at least one epicardial coronary artery were consecutively recruited after coronary angiography (CAG) during the winter season. The coronary collateral circulation (CCC) was graded using Rentrop classification. Poor CCC group included patients with Rentrop Grade 0-1 CCC and control group included patients with Rentrop Grade 2-3 CCC. Vitamin D and PTH levels were measured on the day of CAG. Results. In the poor CCC group, vitamin D levels were lower (34 +/- 25 pmol/L vs. 49 +/- 33 pmol/L; p = 0.01) and the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency (< 37 pmol/L) was higher (67% vs. 43%; p = 0.01) compared to the controls. PTH levels, calcium, and phosphate levels were not significantly different between the groups. Female gender, lower HDL cholesterol, and lower vitamin D levels were independently correlated with poor CCC in the study population. Conclusion. Lower vitamin D levels may be associated with poor collateral development in patients with stable CAD.