Purpose The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), anxiety, and depression with pediatric extremity fractures. Methods Between November 2014 and November 2016, consecutive 138 patients with pediatric extremity fractures were prospectively investigated in terms of the tendency to anxiety, depression, or ADHD in the study group. Consecutive 168 non-trauma patients who were admitted to general pediatrics outpatient clinic were included the control group. Patients were performed with Turgay DSM-IV-Based Child and Adolescent Behavior Disorders Screening and Rating Scale-Parents Form (T-DSM-IV S), The Screen for Child Anxiety-Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED), and The Children's Depression Inventory (CDI). Results There were not any significant differences between study and control groups regarding the age, gender distribution, economical level, or previous psychiatric admission rates (p > 0.05). In the study group, the previous ADHD history and previous fracture history were significantly higher than the control group (p < 0.05). In the study group, the severity of depressive signs and anxiety were significantly higher than the control group (p = 0.000 and p = 0.019; respectively). Regarding the previous fracture history, conduct disorder and tendency to depression were significantly higher in the study group (p = 0.001 and p = 0.011; respectively). Conclusions The signs of ADHD, anxiety, and depression were determined to be higher in children with extremity fractures compared with the non-traumatic population. In patients with especially behavioral problems and depressive signs, directing to the child and adolescent psychiatrists will be protective to prevent re-fractures and high-energy traumas.