Endothelial dysfunction is an early key event in the development of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease observed in chronic renal failure patients. The role of renal transplantation (RTx) on endothelial dysfunction is still unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the endothelial function of chronic renal failure patients before RTx (while they were on hemodialysis, HD), and after RTx (at the 6th and 12th months) by a noninvasive method, brachial arterial ultrasound. A total of 22 (17 male, mean age: 33.9 +/- 11.6 years) RTx recipients were enrolled in the study. Endothelium-dependent vasodilation (EDD) was assessed by establishing reactive hyperemia. EDD prior to transplantation was significantly lower when compared with EDD measured at the 6th and 12th months after RTx (EDD pretransplantation: 6 +/- 3.7%, EDD at the 6th month of RTx: 8.3 +/- 2.3% and EDD at the 12th month of RTx: 12.1 +/- 3.6%, P < 0.001). When the EDD values measured at the 6th and 12th months of RTx were compared, measurements of the 12th month were found significantly higher than those of the 6th month (P < 0.001). Our results also showed that RTx has provided improvement in endothelial function by eliminating the uremic environment although not in the early post-RTx period.