Purpose We evaluated the protective effect of PRP on ovarian function in female rats with cyclophosphamide (Cy)-induced ovarian damage. Methods Thirty-two adult female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups. Group 1 (control-sodium chloride 0.9%; 1 mL/kg, single-dose ip injection), group 2 (Cy); 75 mg/kg, single-dose ip injection and sodium chloride 0.9% (1 mL/kg, single-dose ip injection), group 3 Cy plus PRP, Cy (75 mg/kg, single-dose and PRP (200 mu l, single-dose) ip injection), group 4 (PRP, 200 mu l, single-dose ip injection). Primordial, antral, and atretic follicle counts; serum anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) levels; AMH-positive granulosa cells; and gene expression analysis of Ddx4 were assessed. Results Serum AMH levels were significantly lower in group 2 compared to groups 1, 3, and 4 (p < 0.01, p < 0.01, and p = 0.04, respectively). A significant difference was found in the primordial, primary, secondary, antral, and atretic follicle counts between all groups (p < 0.01). There was a statistically significant difference in AMH-positive staining primary, secondary, and antral follicles count between the groups (p < 0.01). There was a statistically significant difference in primary, secondary, and antral AMH positive staining follicle intensity score between the groups (p < 0.01). Ddx4 expression in group 4 was highest compared to other groups. Conclusion Our study may provide evidence that PRP could protect ovarian function against ovarian damage induced by Cy. It could lead to improved primordial, primary, secondary, and antral follicle numbers.