International ophthalmology, vol.41, no.10, pp.3333-3340, 2021 (SCI-Expanded)
Purpose To assess the effects of 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D-3 (vitamin D-3) either alone or under oxidative damage on human retinal pigment epithelium cell lines. Methods The human retinal pigment epithelial cell lines were pretreated with hydrogen peroxide with different concentrations (100-1000 mu M) and durations (4, 12 and 24 h) to determine the appropriate dose. A group of cells were treated with vitamin D-3 alone, and another group of cells were co-treated with different concentrations of (10-100 nM) vitamin D-3 and hydrogen peroxide. Anti-cytotoxic, anti-apoptotic and anti-genotoxic effects of vitamin D-3 on the hydrogen peroxide treated cell line were evaluated. In addition, mitochondrial membrane potentials of treated cell lines were measured. Results Vitamin D-3 showed statistically significant anti-cytotoxic effects and increased cell viability in all concentrations (p < 0.001). It has also significantly decreased the intracellular ROS generation at concentrations between 10-60 nM and increased intracellular reactive oxygen species in high doses over 90 nM (p < 0.01). When apoptosis was evaluated, vitamin D-3 caused statistically significant decrease in a dose-dependent manner (p < 0.001). In terms of DNA damage which was caused by oxidative stress, it was observed that vitamin D-3 significantly reduced the damage in a dose-dependent manner (p < 0.001). At the doses of 10-50 nM, vitamin D-3 significantly decreased the mitochondrial membrane potential (p < 0.01). Conclusion Our study suggests that 1,25 (OH)(2) D3 is capable for alleviating the oxidative damage in ARPE cell lines. With these results, vitamin D is thought to be a therapeutic alternative for the prevention of age-related macular degeneration. This warrants further investigations.