Aim: Postoperative abdominal adhesions represent one of the most common causes of intestinal obstruction in surgical patients. In this study, the effects of intraperitoneal administration of estrogen on the development of postoperative intraabdominal adhesions and peritoneal leucocytes in a rat adhesion model were investigated. Methods: Sixty Wistar albino rats were divided into three groups. Group 1 (control group) had their abdomen closed after surgery without administration of any material or drug. Group 2 (saline group) received 2 ml of 0.9% NaCl, and group 3 (estrogen group) animals received a single intraperitoneal dose of 2 cc (1 mg) estrogen (Estradiol propionate, 50.000U, Akrofilline (R) R, Biofarma, Turkey). All the groups were exposed to the same adhesion-creating procedure (Swolin K. Experimental studies on the prevention of intra-abdominal adhesions. Studies on rats with an emulsion of lipid and prednisolone. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 1966; 45: 473-498.). After 7-42 days, all animals were sacrificed. Adhesions were scored and peritoneal leucocytes were counted. Results: The adhesion formation and peritoneal leucocyte count of the estrogen group were significantly less than the control and saline groups and a statistically significant difference was determined in comparison of those groups (p < .05). Conclusion: We concluded that intraperitoneal estrogen decreases the incidence of postoperative intraabdominal adhesion formation in rat adhesion model.