in: Pediatric ENT Infections, Cemal Cingi,Emin Sami Arısoy,Nuray Bayar Muluk, Editor, Springer, London/Berlin , Zug, pp.831-854, 2021
The majority of the tissues and organs that fall into the area of expertise of ear, nose and throat (ENT) specialists are adjacent to the orbit, and therefore to the globe. As a result of this contiguity, ENT diseases can spread to the orbit and present with various orbital complications. While these complications can be mild, they can also manifest as severe morbidities that lead to permanent loss of vision. In addition, ENT diseases can also spread to the cranium as well as the orbit, and lead to severe intracranial complications that may result in mortality. Such intracranial complications may also manifest with findings in an ophthalmological examination, as many cranial nerves (CNs) are also associated with the orbital structures. This is why ENT specialists commonly encounter ophthalmological findings as a result of both the orbital and cranial complications of infectious ENT diseases. In addition, ophthalmological examination findings are useful for diagnosis, as some infectious agents can cause a common infection both in the ocular and head-neck region.