BEZMIALEM SCIENCE, vol.9, no.4, pp.490-497, 2021 (ESCI)
Cancer is a disease with a high mortality rate worldwide. Moreover, this rate is increasing day by day. It is expected to rise to first place by 2030, leaving cardiovascular diseases behind, which is the most common cause of death in the world. Today, it is known that cancer is the second most common cause of death. The process of cancer and its treatment reducethe quality of life. To improve this process, the effects of probiotics on some types of cancer, especially colorectal cancer, are examined in studies conducted today. Studies are showing that probiotics provide positive results in cancer prevention and treatment. However, some studies argue that they should not be used, putting forward the fact they may cause infection in patients with very weak immunity. The mechanisms for the antitumor properties of probiotics have not been fully explained yet. It is associated with some pathways which mainly focus on the gut microbiota. The opinion that the effects of probiotics on cancer are dependent on dose, strain, and species is accepted as a general conclusion. Besides, probiotics must be consumed regularly and the consumed product must contain the minimum number of microorganisms (approximately 100 g/day) to provide the intended effect. In this review, the effects of probiotics, of which positive and negative effects on individuals with cancer are still being discussed, on different types of cancer are presented in the light of current literature.