Lasers in medical science, vol.37, no.1, pp.317-321, 2022 (SCI-Expanded)
The aim of this study is to present our experience on the use of the holmium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Ho:YAG) laser in pediatric patients for pediatric urolithiasis and describe the optimal settings. A total of 116 children who underwent urolithiasis treatment (percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL), ureterorenoscopy (URS), retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS)) were included. The mean age of the patients was 8.4 +/- 5.2 years (1-18). The mean follow-up was 26 +/- 8.8 months (9-45). There was no difference between the mean stone sizes of PNL and RIRS patients (p = 0.816). Operations were performed with 200, 272, and 365-mu m fibers. In mini-URS, stone fragmentation was achieved with the energy settings set between 0.5 and 1 J and frequency set to > 8 Hz. In RIRS, fragmentation was achieved with the setting of 0.5-0.8 J at 10-20 Hz. Stone fragmentation was performed with energy settings of 0.8 to 2 J between 5 and 15 Hz for PNL. There was no significant difference between the stone-free rates of the PNL and RIRS (p = 0.150). Four postoperative complications occurred (Clavien II), which included febrile urinary infections in two patients who underwent mini-URS, one patient who underwent PNL, and one patient who underwent RIRS. Our results confirmed that Ho-YAG laser can be effectively used in children for stone treatment by using low-energy high-frequency settings for URS and RIRS and a high energy setting for PNL.