BIOTECHNIC & HISTOCHEMISTRY, vol.97, no.8, pp.555-566, 2022 (SCI-Expanded)
Combined use of a chemotherapeutic agent and an autophagy inhibitor is a novel cancer treatment strategy. We investigated the effects of chloroquine (CQ) on lung pathology caused by both solid Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) and doxorubicin (DXR). A control group and eight experimental groups of adult female mice were inoculated subcutaneously with 2.5 x 10(6) EAC cells. DXR (1.5 mg/kg and 3 mg/kg) and CQ (25 mg/kg and 50 mg/kg) alone or in combination were injected intraperitoneally on days 2, 7 and 12 following inoculation with EAC cells. Lung tissue samples were examined using immunohistochemistry (IHC) for endothelial (eNOS), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL). Serum catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were measured using ELISA. We found decreased levels of iNOS and eNOS in the groups that received 1.5 mg/kg DXR alone and in combination with 25 mg/kg and 50 mg/kg CQ. Combined administration of DXR and CQ partially prevented disruption of alveolar structure. Levels of antioxidant enzymes and MDA were lower in all treated groups; the greatest reduction was observed in mice that received the combination of 25 mg/kg CQ + 1.5 mg/kg DXR. Levels of NGAL were elevated in all treated groups. We found that CQ ameliorated both EAC and DOX induced lung pathology in female mice with solid EAC by reducing oxidative stress.