Purpose: In this article, we evaluate subfoveal choroidal thickness in celiac patients with respect to adherence to the gluten-free diet and nonadherence to the gluten-free diet, comparing with age and sex matched healthy controls using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography. Materials and Methods: A case-control study among 42 celiac patients and 42 healthy participants was conducted in the Department of Pediatric Gastroenterology. Celiac patients of our policlinics compliant with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography examination enrolled in the study. Celiac patients had been asked verbally about their adherence to gluten-free diet, were evaluated according to negative or positive EmA and anti-TG2 for defining adherence, and were divided into two groups (adherence to gluten-free diet and nonadherence to gluten-free diet). Results: Subfoveal choroidal thickness was thinner in EmA (+) or anti-TG2 (+) eyes than EmA(-) or anti-TG2 (-) eyes in celiac patients, but it was not statistically significant. The mean subfoveal choroidal thickness values in eyes with celiac disease, whose diagnosis time was longer than 60 months, were thinner than shorter group. Longer duration of gluten-free diet was associated with adherence difficulty and thinner choroidal thickness (r = -0.15, p = 0.34). Adherence to gluten-free diet was 88.2% for children below the age of 60 months and 57.1% for children older than 60 months. Conclusion: In conclusion, in addition to other extraintestinal manifestations of celiac disease, diagnosis time longer than 60 months in pediatric celiac patients, nonadherence to the gluten-free diet, and antibody positivity should be focused on during ophthalmologic examination and choroid measurement.