Essential for survival and reproduction, the circadian timing system (CTS) regulates adaptation to cyclical changes such as the light/dark cycle, temperature change, and food availability. The regulation of energy homeostasis possesses rhythmic properties that correspond to constantly fluctuating needs for energy production and consumption. Adipose tissue is mainly responsible for energy storage and, thus, operates as one of the principal components of energy homeostasis regulation. In accordance with its roles in energy homeostasis, alterations in adipose tissue’s physiological processes are associated with numerous pathologies, such as obesity and type 2 diabetes. These alterations also include changes in circadian rhythm. In the current review, we aim to summarize the current knowledge regarding the circadian rhythmicity of adipogenesis, lipolysis, adipokine secretion, browning, and non-shivering thermogenesis in adipose tissue and to evaluate possible links between those alterations and metabolic diseases. Based on this evaluation, potential therapeutic approaches, as well as clock genes as potential therapeutic targets, are also discussed in the context of chronotherapy.